Immunology Lecture Notes
December 26, 2013


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Note: Each outline entry is a hyperlink that will take you to relevant text and figures.

I. Lymphocytes and lymphatic tissues

A. Cellular mobility and traffic in the immune system. [Download and Print]

B. Lymphocyte recirculation Web Site presents images and text that show how lymphocyte recirculation makes multiple tissues act as one immune system.

II. Lymphatic tissues in the adult body

A. Primary lymphatic tissues [Download and Print]

1. Bone marrow

a. Structure

b. B-cell development occurs in specific compartments and involves movement (i.e. circulation and locomotion).

2. Thymus

a. Structure

b. T-cell development occurs in specific compartments as well.

c. Thymus microenvironments and cells that influence T-cell development (i.e., Macrophages, Dendritic cells, Nurse cells)

B. Secondary lymphatic tissues [Download and Print]

1. Skin associated lymphatic tissue

2. Lymph nodes

a. Structure

b. Antigen uptake (filters cells, particles & soluble materials from lymph)

c. Antigen presenting cells

d. T cell Reaction Foci and Follicles

e. Lymphocyte Traffic (text),Homing (text) and Emigration (animation)

f. Tissue changes during immune response

3. Spleen

a. Structure

b. Antigen uptake (blood filter)

c. Traffic

d. Reticuloendothelial function

4. Mucosal associated lymphatic tissues (e.g., Peyer's patch)

a. Structure

b. Antigen uptake (pinocytosis from environment).

c. Traffic (two traffic cycles occur during development and lodging in tissue for mucosal effector function)

Other Lecture Notes on the WWW

Janeway et al Immune Animations #1

Keratin.Com Immunology Notes #2

Davidson Animated Immunology #3

Animation of Burnet's Clonal Selection Theory, WEHI, Australia

Immununology Animations by Blink #4

III. Mucosal and Peripheral Immunity (One Immune System or Two?)

1. Effects of antigen by mucosal route

a. Antibody isotype commitment

b. Mucosal cellular immunity

2. Effects of antigen by peripheral route

a. Antibody isotype commitment

b. Peripheral cellular immunity

3. Crossregulation vs immune deviation

a. Tolerance, suppression, Th1/Th2 paradigm

b. Importance of microenvironment and cell traffic

4. Taking advantage of the immunity inflammation paradigm

IV. Source References:

Benchmark Text, W.E Paul (ed): Fundamental Immunology

New Text (in paperback), Travers et al (eds): Immunobiology

Clinically Relevant Text, R.R. Rich et al (eds): Clinical Immunology: Principles & Practice

Definitive "Mucosal" Text, Ogra et al (eds): Mucosal Immunology

Journal References:

1. Anderson, A.O. 1990. "Structure and organization of the lymphatic system." In Immunophysiology. The role of cells and cytokines in immunity and inflammation. Oppenheim, J.J. and E. Shevach (eds.), pp. 14-45, Oxford University Press, NY.

2. Fu, Y.X. and D. Chaplin. 1999. Development and Maturation of Secondary Lymphoid Tissues. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 17:399-433.

3. Anderson, A.O. and S. Shaw. 1993. T cell adhesion to endothelium: the FRC conduit system and other anatomic and molecular features which facilitate the adhesion cascade in lymph node. Sem. Immunol. 5:271-282.

4. Anderson, A.O., and S. Shaw. 1995. "Lymphocyte Trafficking." Chapter 3, In Clinical Immunology, Principles and Practice. R.R. Rich, T.A. Fleisher, B.D. Schwartz, W.T. Shearer, and W. Strober (eds.), pp 39-49, Mosby-Year Book, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

5. Ebnet, K., E.P. Kaldjian, A.O. Anderson, and S. Shaw. 1995. Orchestrated information transfer underlying leukocyte endothelial interactions. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 14:155-177.

6. Gretz, E.J., E.P. Kaldjian, A.O. Anderson, and S. Shaw. 1996. Sophisticated strategies for information encounter in the lymph node: The reticular network as a conduit of soluble information and a highway for cell traffic. ("Cutting Edge") J. Immunol. 157:495-499.

7. Butcher, E.C. and L.J. Picker. 1996. Lymphocyte Homing and Homeostasis. Science 272:60-66.

8. Gretz, J.E., A.O. Anderson, and S. Shaw. 1997. Cords, channels, corridors and conduits: critical architectural elements facilitating cell interactions in the lymph node cortex. Immunol. Rev. 156:11-24.

9. Anderson, A.O. 1997. New Technologies for Producing Systemic and Mucosal Immunity by Oral Immunization: Immunoprophylaxis in Meals, Ready-to-Eat. In Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp. 451-500.

10. Immunological Reviews Vol 156. Table of Contents lists multiple relevant topics, 1997.

11. Sehgal, D., E. Schiaffella, A.O. Anderson, and R.G. Mage. (1998) Analysis of single B cells by Polymerase Chain Reaction reveal rearranged VH with germline sequences in spleens of immunized rabbits: Implications for B cell repertoire maintentance and renewal. J. Immunol. 161:5347-5356.

12. Mage RG, Sehgal D, Schiaffella E, Anderson AO. 1999. Gene-conversion in rabbit B-cell ontogeny and during immune responses in splenic germinal centers. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 72:7-15

13. Kuprash, D.V., M.B. Alimzhanov, A.V. Tumanov, A.O. Anderson, K. Pfeffer, and S.A. Nedospasov. 1999. TNF and Lymphotoxin beta Cooperate in the Maintenance of Secondary Lymphoid Tissue Microarchitecture But Not in the Development of Lymph Nodes. J. Immunol 163: 6575-6580.

14. Seghal, D., E. Schiaffella, A.O. Anderson and R.G. Mage. 2000. Generation of heterogeneous rabbit anti-DNP antibodies by gene conversion and hypermutation of rearranged VL and VH genes during clonal expansion of B-cells in splenic germinal centers. Eur. J. Immunol. 30:3634-3644.

15. Gretz, J.E., C.C. Norbury, A.O. Anderson, A.E.I. Proudfoot, and S. Shaw. 2000. Lymph-borne Chemokines and Other Low Molecular Weight Molecules Reach High Endothelial Venules via Specialized Conduits While a Functional Barrier Isolates the Lymphocyte Microenvironments in Lymph Node Cortex. J. Exp. Med. 192:1425-1440.

16. Kaldjian, E.P., J.E Gretz, A.O Anderson, Y. Shi, S. Shaw. 2001. Spatial and molecular organization of lymph node T cell cortex: A labyrinthine cavity bounded by an epithelial sheet of fibroblastic reticular cells anchored to basement membrane-like extracellular matrix. Intl. Immunology 13:1243-1253.

17. Kuprash, D.V., M.B. Alimzhanov, A.V. Tumanov, S.I. Grivennikov, A.N. Shakkov, L.N. Drutskaya, M.W. Marino, R.L. Turetskaya, A.O. Anderson, K. Rajewsky, K. Pfeffer and S. A. Nedospasov. 2002. Redundancy in TNF and LT signaling in vivo: mice with inactivation of the entire TNF/LT locus versus single knockout mice. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22:8626-8634.

18. Ingulli, E, DR Ulman, MM Lucido, and Marc K Jenkins. 2002. In Situ Analysis Reveals Physical Interactions Between CD11b+ Dendtritic Cells and Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells After Subcutaneous Injection of Antigen. J. Immunol. 169: 2247-2252.

19. Nolte, MA, JAM Belien, I Schadee-Eestermans, W. Jansen, WWJ Unger, N van Rooijen, G Kraal and RE Mebius. 2003. A Conduit System Distributes Chemokines and Small Blood-borne Molecules through the Splenic White Pulp. J. Exp. Med 198:505-512

20. Bejenoff, M, S Granjeaud and S Guerder. 2003. The Strategy of T Cell Antigen-presenting Cell Encounter in Antigen-draining Lymph Nodes Revealed by Imaging of Initial T Cell Activation. J. Exp. Med. 198:715-724

21. Itano AA, SJ McSorley, RL Reinhardt, BD Ehst, E Ingulli, AY, Rudentsky and Marc K Jenkins. 2003. Distinct Dendritic Cell Populations Sequentially Present Antigen to CD4 T Cells and Stimulate Different Aspects of Cell-Mediated Immunity. Immunity 19: 47-57.

22. von Andrian, UH and T Mempel. 2003. Homing and Cellular Traffic in Lymph Nodes. Nature Reviews Immunology 3: 867-878. [PubMed]

23. Thomazy VA, Vega F, Medeiros LJ, Davies PJ and Jones D. 2003. Phenotypic modulation of the stromal reticular network in normal and neoplastic lymph nodes: tissue transglutaminase reveals coordinate regulation of multiple cell types. Am J Pathol. 63: 165-74.

24. Mempel, TR, SE Henrickson, and UH von Andrian. 2004. T cell priming by dendritic cells in lymph nodes occurs in three distinct phases. Nature 427: 154-159. [PubMed]

25. Pribila JT, AA Itano, KL Mueller, Y Shimizu. 2004. The alpha1beta1 and alphaEbeta7 integrins define a subset of dendritic cells in peripheral lymph nodes with unique adhesive and antigen uptake properties. J Immunol. 172: 282-91

26. Katakai, T, T Hara, J-H Lee, H Gonda, M Sugai, and A Shimizu. 2004. A novel reticular stromal structure in lymph node cortex: an immuno-platform for interactions among dendritic cells, T cells and B cells. Int Immunol 16(8):1133-1142.

27. Katakai T, T Hara, M Sugai, H Gonda, and A Shimizu. 2004. Lymph Node Fibroblastic Reticular Cells Construct the Stromal Reticulum via Contact with Lymphocytes. J Exp Med 200: 783-795

28. MacPherson, G, S Milling, U Yrlid, L Cousins, E Turnbull, and F-P Huang. December 1, 2004. Uptake of Antigens from the Intestine by Dendritic Cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1029: 75 - 82.

29. Sixt, M, N Kanazawa, M Selg, T Samson, G Roos, DP Reinhardt, R Pabst, MB Lutz and L Sorokin. 2005. The conduit system transports soluble antigens from the afferent lymph to resident dendritic cells in the T cell area of the lymph node. Immunity v22, pp19-29.

30. Anderson, AO and S Shaw. 2005. Conduit for Privileged Communications In the Lymph Node. Preview. Immunity v22 pp3-5. [PDF]

31. Okada T, Miller MJ, Parker I, Krummel MF, Neighbors M, et al. 2005. Antigen-Engaged B Cells Undergo Chemotaxis toward the T Zone and Form Motile Conjugates with Helper T Cells. PLoS Biol 3(6): e150

32. Kissenpfennig A, Henri S, Dubois B, Laplace-Builhe C, Perrin P, Romani N, Tripp CH, Douillard P, Leserman L, Kaiserlian D, Saeland S, Davoust J, Malissen B. 2005. Dynamics and Function of Langerhans Cells In Vivo Dermal Dendritic Cells Colonize Lymph Node AreasDistinct from Slower Migrating Langerhans Cells. Immunity v22(5):643-654.

33. Pabst, O., Peters, T., Czeloth, N., Bernhardt, G., Scharffetter-Kochanek K., and Förster, R. 2005. Cutting Edge: Egress of Newly Generated Plasma Cells from Peripheral Lymph Nodes Depends on beta 2 Integrin. J. Immunol. 174: 7492-7495.

Recirculation | Emigration at HEV | Chemokine Signal | FRC Conduit System | Locomotion | Chemotaxis & Links

Art Anderson CV | Dendritic Cells in TDL | Dendritic cells in Tissue | Immune System Lecture Notes | Mucosal Immunity

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